During the first few weeks after emergence, the sesame seedlings are very sensitive to weeds, hence an effective weed control measure is vital during this period. Different types of perennial grasses, like Khabbal, Baroo and annual broad leaved weeds like Cholai, Hazardani, Bakhra and Tandlla compete the crop in rainfed as well as irrigated areas. These weeds can easily be controlled by adopting cultural methods (crop rotation and tillage practices) and chemical weed methods depending on weed species, degree of infestation and weather pattern etc. However re-emergence herbicide (Stomp 330 E) @ 1.48 ai kg/ha can be used before germination and is very effective in controlling wide range of grasses and broad leaf weeds.
As sesame is a deep root crop and needs high level of fertility. Therefore, in rotation leguminous crops like Mung and Mash should be included along with sesame as Sesame-Wheat-Mong,
If the farmer follows all the recommendations as mentioned above, seed yield of 1000-1200 kg/ha that amounts to Rs.50-60 thousand /ha can very easily be produced. However, the commercial varieties of sesame have yield potential of about 1500 kg/ha. These new high yielding and promising varieties are nearly to be released for general cultivation to the farmers throughout the country.
Diseases of Sesame
The followings are the major diseases in sesame:
- Charcoal rot
- Alternaria leaf spot
- Bacterial leaf spot
- Bacterial blight
- Root wilting
The diseases management programme should include the following methods:
- Use healthy seed of resistant varieties
- Prior to sowing, treat the seed with one of the systemic fungicides, (captafol, Therain, Dithane M-45 and Benlate) @ 2-3 gm/kg of seed to protect from fungal diseases.
- Use proper cultural practices (rotation and tillage)
- spray the crop with captafol, Dithane-M45 @ 1 kg/acre in 100 litter of water and Tecto and Benlate @ 500 gm/acre after 10-15 days interval for bacterial disease, spray streptocycline @ 0.3 gm in 100 liters (25 gallon) of water/ha. Treat the seeds before planting with antibiotics (streptomycin @ 100 ppm).
In general sesame is not damaged by insects. However, the main insects of sesame crops as under:
- Whitefly – Leaf roller
- Til gallfly – Til Hawk moth
For the control of larvae of leaf roller, till hawk moth, whitefly and leaf hopper, spray Dimecron 100 % @ 200 to 250 ml/acre or Methyl Parathion @ 350 to 500 m/acre or Somicidin 20 EC @ 250 ml/acre or Karate @ 250-300 ml/acre mixed in 100 to 150 liters of water at 10-15 days interval, two times in case the attack is sever. In case of cutworms, spray with Lorsban @ 400 ml ai/acre, Sevin @ 800 gm ai/acre or Sumicidin @ 120 ml ai/acre.
Harvesting and Thrashing
Sesame crop matures in about 100-120 days. The crop must be harvested in time to avoid losses in yield due to shattering. The crop should be harvested when 75 % capsules are ripened and become (yellow coloured). Make bundles and stalked upright for drying. In this way the capsules get nutrient and the seeds develops fully. One week after harvesting, thrashing should be done in clear weather so that seeds could also be dried prior to storage with at least 10 % moisture content.