Favorable Conditions For Its growth
Rice is a tropical plant.it requires high temperature during the growing season of 4 to 6 months. The temperature should be more than 80 degree F and in no way less than 70 degree F even for the quick maturing varieties. In Pakistan rice is cultivated only one a year i.e. early summer. Its cultivation is not possible in areas of severe cold or where the temperature goes below freezing point.
Rice is known as a plant of water. Its cultivation requires large amount of moisture. The annual rainfall should not be in any way less than 40 “.The root of the rice plant should remain submerged in water for a long time. For 75 days the rice fields should have 6” of slow moving water. When the rice crops mature, less water is required and during ripening season, the field should be almost dry so that it can be harvested easily.
The rice growing areas of Pakistan have an average annual rainfall of less than 20 ” .So the deficiency of rainfall has been met by the artificial arrangements of irrigation water through canals and tube wells etc.
With the exemption of sandy soils which are very permeable, rice can be grown successfully on soils ranging from silt loam to clays . Alluvial soil is the most suitable soil for the rich growth of rice. Heavy clayey sub soil with water retaining capacity gives best results.
The flooding of rice fields requires level land and therefore river valleys, deltas and coasted plains are suitable areas, otherwise terracing is required.
System of Cultivation
There are two methods of rice cultivation:
Broad Cast Sowing
This involves direct plantation of rice plants in the fields.
In this case sowing is first done in nursery beds. When the plants attain a height of 4 ” to 6 “,they are transplanted into big fields. This method is also called the Japanese method. It is the most scientific and beneficial method. By its practice ,the per acre production increases considerably.
Rice is mostly cultivated in rows and the distance from row to row is kept about 6” and from plant to plant remains 3 “.
Rice Growing Areas
Cultivation of rice is mainly confined to the low lying parts of the Punjab plain and the flooded rivers and canal areas of Sindh. To a small extent it is also grown in the sub-mountain districts in the North and the canal irrigated areas. Rice cultivation in N.W.F.P. Baluchistan and Azad Kashmir areas is not more than 1 % to 2 % of their total areas.
In Punjab, the division of Lahore and Gujranwala rank at the top. Best equalities like Basmati, Parmal, Sukhdari, IRRIsix etc are grown in this part of Punjab. Besides somu rice is also cultivated in Shakhupura, Sargodha, Faisalabad, Multan and Bahawalpur divisions.
Pakistan is the world’s largest producer of rice. Each year, it produces an average of 6 million tonnes and together with the rest of the South Asia; the country is responsible for supplying 25% of the world’s paddy rice output. Most of these crops are grown in the fertile Sindh and Punjab region with millions of farmers relying on rice cultivation as their major source of employment. Among the most famous varieties grown in Pakistan include the Basmati, known for its flavor and quality. Rice production comprises 40% of Basmati (Fine) type and 60% of coarse types.
Modern Rice Varieties
In Pakistan, modern rice varieties were adopted rather rapidly after IRRI rice was introduced in 1968. The rice variety IRRI was reportedly successful in Pakistan because of high solar radiation and abundant irrigation water. When properly managed, IRRI yielded three to four times as much as local varieties and enabled the country to increase its rice production substantially.
Type of Rice
Different varieties of rice are grown in Pakistan, for example:
- Super Basmati
- Basmati Rice PK-385
- Long Grain 386 Rice
- IRRI-6 White Rice
- IRRI-9 White Rice
- Parboiled Rice
- Brown Rice
Basmati is the finest variety of rice. Characterized by a unique aroma, extra length and slender grain, Basmati tastes delicious and is a most pure & fresh gift to the world. Cultivated mainly in the fertile plains of Pakistan, the crop matures in monsoons to become fine rice. What is nurtured so tenderly by lush green field & fed by the perennial clear rivers is cradled to perfection in our hands to reach your taste buds as an exquisite delicacy. The grain becomes two-three times longer on being cooked.
Basmati Rice PK-385
Basmati is the finest variety of rice. Characterized by a unique aroma, extra length and slender grain, Basmati tastes delicious. Our Basmati Rice has to be tasted to be believed. The grain becomes two-three times longer on being cooked.
Long Grain 386 Rice
Long Grain 386 Rice a special quality rice, only produced in the province of Punjab and has been gaining international recognition as one of the best qualities of diet rice. Though it is counted as Non-Basmati Rice but its aroma and cooking results match the Basmati Pk-385 variety.
IRRI-6 White Rice
This is the low priced, high volume rice. This variety is grown in the Sindh province of Pakistan and is a major export quality to a number of Middle Eastern and African Ports.
IRRI-9 White Rice
This variety is grown in both the Sindh and Punjab provinces in Pakistan.
Husked rice that first has been heat tempered, soaked in warm water under pressure and dried before milling ; this process allows the inner kernel to retain more of the vitamins and minerals from the bran layer which also clarifies the more yellow kernel after is has been milled. Parboiled rice is healthier than white rice.
Rice Sowing Area and Yield
Rice sowing area is estimated at 2.31 million hectares, 10.1% less than last year’s area of 2.57 million hectares. Production of rice decreased from 6.95 mil- lion tonnes in 2008-09 to 5.54 million tonnes in 2012-13, thus showing decline of 20%. The production decreased due to decrease in area and effects of monsoon rain and late receding of water period in rice fields prolonged the sowing. Rice is sown in many areas of Pakistan. In Punjab it is cultivated in Sialkot, Wazirabad, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, district Gujrat, Sargodha, Faisalabad and Kasure. In Sindh, Jacobabad, Larkana, Badin, Thatta, Shikarpur and Dadu district are important in rice cultivation. District Nasirabad and Baluchistan are also a rice producing area. The areas, production and yield of rice for the last five years.