GARLIC PRODUCTION IN PAKISTAN
Garlic is the second most widely used cultivated allium after onion. It has long been recognized all over the world as a valuable spice for foods and a popular remedy for various ailments and physiological disorders.
It is grown throughout Pakistan and consumed by most of the people. It is used practically all over the world for flavoring various dishes. In America about 50% of the entire output of fresh garlic is dehydrated and sold to food processors.
In Pakistan, Middle East and other countries, it is already being used in several food preparations especially in dishes, curry powders, curried vegetables, meat preparation, tomato ketchup etc.
The important garlic producing countries in the world are china, Turkey, India, Thailand, Korea, Egypt, Pakistan etc.
Fertile, well drained and loamy soil is required for high yield. Heavy and hard soil significantly affects the bulb size and yield.
Garlic is frost resistant crop requires cool period during early growth and dry period near maturity. The increase in day length from 8 to 12 hrs increase the bulb weight, bulb diameter and number of cloves and reduce the number of secondary leaves.
Varieties of Garlic
Soft Neck Garlic
Soft neck garlic is the type you’ll most likely see in the produce section of your grocery store. Its name comes from the multi layered parchment that covers the entire bulb, continues up the neck of the bulb, and forms a soft, pliable stalk suitable for braiding. Its papery skin, or sheath, is a beautiful creamy white color. Soft neck garlic typically has several layers of cloves surrounding the central portion of the garlic bulb. The outermost layer’s cloves are the stoutest; the cloves of the internal layers become smaller closer to the center of the bulb. Of the several types of soft neck garlic, two are most abundant.
Hard Neck Garlic
Unlike soft neck garlic, hard neck varieties do not have a flexible stalk. When you buy this type of garlic, it will typically have an extremely firm stalk protruding an inch or two from the top of the bulb. Hard neck garlic sends up scapes from its central woody stalk when it is growing. A scape is a thin green extension of the stalk that forms a 360-degree curl with a small bulbils, or swelling, several inches from its end. Inside the bulbil are more than 100 tiny cloves that are genetically identical to the parent bulb beneath. Many people call these “flowers,” but they are not really blooms. If left on the plant, the scape will eventually die and fall over, and the tiny cloves will spill onto the ground. However, most never make it that far. Cutting off the scapes keeps the plant’s energy from forming the bulbil and therefore encourages larger bulbs. But don’t throw out the scapes. They can be a delicious ingredient in your cooking.
Silver Skin Garlic
This easy to grow variety has a strong flavor and stores well when dried, it will last nearly a year under the right conditions. The Creole group of silver skin garlic has a rose-tinted parchment.
Artichoke garlic has a milder flavor and may have fewer and larger cloves than silver skin. You can store it as long as eight months. Artichoke garlic may occasionally have purple spots or streaks on its skin, but don’t confuse it with purple stripe garlic, a hard neck variety that has quite a bit of purple colouring.
Time of Planting and Method of Sowing
Garlic is planted in single clove but bulbils are also used occasionally. In hilly area, this crop is planted in March-April where in plains; it is planted from August to Oct.
The quantity of planting material required per area depends on clove size and number of cloves per bulb. A distance of 15 to 20 cm (row to row) and 8 to 10 cm (plant to plant) is recommended.
Manuring and Fertilizer Requirement
Garlic responds very well to organic manure, application of 16-20 tonnes/acre at the time of field preparation is recommended. Application of N:P:K @ 75:85:55 kg produce higher yield. At the time of planting, half of nitrogen along with full dose of P and K should be used, the remaining half of nitrogen be applied 30-45 days after planting.
Irrigation and Intercultural
Garlic crop needs irrigation once in a week during vegetative growth and at 10-15 days interval near maturation. Garlic is a closely planted crop which requires 3-5 manual hoeing for higher yield. However weeding is tedious, expensive and often damage the plants therefore weeds can be controlled by using oxadiazon (0.5 lit/acre) and pendimethalin (1.0 lit/acre), as pre-emergence weedicides.
Pests & Diseases
Best control of garlic rust (Puccinia allii) can be obtained with Mancozeb 80 w.p. @ 1.92 kg/ha. Fusarium rot in stored garlic caused by Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani can also be controlled by fumigation with fermalin (Rath and Motharty, 1980)
Stored garlic is observed to be infested by larvae of Ephestia elutella. Fumigation with Phosphine tablets is an effective treatment.
The crop is ready for harvest when the tops turn brownish and show signs of drying up and bend over. The bulbs mature in 4-6 months after plantation depending upon the climate.
Garlic bulbs can be best stored for 3-4 months in well ventilated room. Storability is also affected by enzyme activity and the cultivars most suitable for storage have generally have low ascorbate and polyosenol oxidase activity. Application of 2500 or 5000 ppm MH as foliar spray before harvest is reported to inhibit sprouting in storage up to 300 days without any appreciable adverse effects on yield. The treatment also reduced the loss in weight of bulbs stored at low temperature (1.0 to 8.0C).