Buffaloes and Cows


Hemorrhagic Septicemia (HS)

Syn: (Gulghoto/ Gand /Patghoto)

Sign and symptoms:
High temperature (106-107 F), Profused salivation, Warm Painful swelling around throat, Difficult breathing.

Treatment and control

  • Separate the diseased animal.
  • Spray germicide medicine in the house of cattle.
  • If hemorrhagic septicemia disease can be seen in one animal then vaccinate all the animals. Vaccination must be done in all susceptible animals during May /June and November /December.
  • Provide hygienic food and housing and keep animals in shade.
  • Oxytetracycline, sulfonamides and ceftiofur is effective use according to the advice of a veterinarian.
  • Pour cold water on head in case of high temperature and injection of Strong pyrine or Diclofenac sodium can be used.

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)

(Mookhar/ Moharo/ Samaro)

Sign and Symptoms:
104 to 106 oF, Characteristic vesicles appear in the oral mucosa, interdigital space, udder etc. Profuse salivation, and lameness, protrusion of the tongue. Suckling calf usually die as a result of myocarditis and myocardial degeneration.

Treatment and Control

  • Vaccination must be done in all susceptible animals.
  • Isolation of infected animal from other healthy animals.
  • Pour cold water on head and body in case of high temperature for 10 minute.
  • Mouth wash with boric acid [1 part] + Glycerin [4 part] and Foot bath with phenylformalin + CuSO4(2%).
  • 15 Thyroxine tablets daily for 6 days
  • FMD serum 50cc/animal can be injected with the advice of veterinarian.

Black Quarter (BQ)

(Choray Maar)

Sign and symptoms:
Swelling of the affected muscle tissue (legs, neck, hip, chest, shoulder, back or elsewhere) due to fluid and gas accumulation, acute lameness, rising fever, muscle tremors, and ultimately death of the animal. Autolysis proceeds rapidly.

Treatment and control

  • Vaccination must be done in all susceptible animals.
  • Procaine penicillin, IM @ 40000 IU repeat after every 6 hours with the consultancy of Veterinarian.


(Lumpy jaw)

Sign and symptoms:
Initially pointless hard immovable swelling on mandible or maxilla usually at the level of central molar teeth. Eventually discharge small amounts of pus through one or more openings in skin.


  • Treatment is often ineffective. If the disease is detected early, it may be better to dispose of the animal while it is still in good condition.
  • Potassium iodide is given through oral route 10g daily for 10 days in large animals.
  • Surgical debridement need veterinarian.

Johne ’s disease


Sign and symptoms:
Progressive emaciation over several weeks, chronic intractable diarrhea which does not respond to any treatment. Infection occurs in animal at an early age, usually under 30 days of age.


  • No effective treatment, good sanitation and management practices aimed at limiting the exposure of young animals to the organism.
  • Isoniazid @ 20mg/kg body weight. Streptomycin (50 mg/kg b. wt.) can also be given with the consultancy of Veterinarian.


(Rat mootra)

Sign and symptoms :
Anemia, Hemoglobinuria, Jaundice, Fever, Heavy case fatality rate.

Treatment and Control

  • Regular dipping with cypermethrine or spray after 15 days of animals.
  • Spray in shed after every 8th day with cypermethrine.
  • Imizole @1cc/100 kg body weight of animals can be injected with the consultancy of veterinarian.


(Pait ka Kiaray)

Sign and symptoms:
Mostly signs are rough hair coat, pica and diarrhea. Intermittent fever develops in parasitic infestation. Loss of hair, pot belly and phosphorus deficiency also occur.


  • Animals should not graze at same area for a week.
  • Regular deworming of the animals with levamisole, febendazole, albendazole etc. after every 3 month according to company recommendation


(Flies, Mosquito, Tick (Cheechar))

Sign and symptoms:
Rough hair coat, presence of Flies fleas, ticks or mites on the skin mostly under the legs and ears.


  • Regular dipping with cypermethrine or spray after 15 days and Sulphur oil is also effective.
  • Spray in shed after every 8th day with cypermethrine


(Saru /Moosari/Chandri/Angar)

Sign and symptoms:
Characterized by changes in udder and milk composition (physical, chemical, bacteriological), neutrophils in milk increase.


Surf Field Mastitis Test:

Make 3 % surf field solution: add 6 teaspoons of surf in half litre water, mix it, filter the solution and heat it. Take milk and add equal volume of 3% solution, swirl this mixture for half minute and then examine for precipitation or gel formation (In case of mastitis).

Ground Test:

Take few streaks on ground. If the absorbance of streak is quick in ground then animal is –ve for mastitis but if the absorbance is slow then milk is mastitic. Late absorbance is due to pus as mastitic milk is pus containing milk.

Treatment and control

  • Farm and milkman sanitation. Dipping of teats after milking with antiseptic solution.
    Separate milking of effected animals. Screening test (Surf field mastitis test) after every 15 days.
  • Garlic, lemon, ginger, red chilies, black pepper, black zera, dried ginger dry for 5 days. Mix them in flour, sprinkle water and wrap in newspaper. Give for 5 days.
  • 250 ml lemon and 500 gram sugar may also be given.
  • Modern Rx of mastitis: Penicillin G intramammary for 5 days at evening.

Tympany/Bloat (Grain overload)

(Aphara / Bharti)

Sign and symptoms

Sudden death, Abdomen is enlarged Dyspnea and grunting are marked and are accompanied by mouth breathing, protrusion of the tongue, extension of the head, and frequent urination

Treatment and control

  • Reducing the level of legume in the diet or pasture
  • Feeding some wheat straw or grass hay prior to parturition
  • Supplementing the diet with ploxaline, a nonionic surfactant, to prevent bloat.
  • Soybean Oil 60ml PO, Carbacol Injection 1-3 ml S/C
  • As last resort, use Trocar Canula to save the life of the animal.

Milk Fever

Sign and symptoms:

Animals unable to stand, Cow is sleepy, Turned head towards the flank, Increased heart rate, Pulse also weak and Ruminal stasis

Treatment and control

  • Avoid excessive calcium therapy before parturition.
  • Usually 400-800 ml 25 % calcium borogluconate is given in large animals in the presence of veterinarian.
  • Recovered cows should not be milked for 24 hours; then the amount of milk taken should be gradually increased over the next 2-3 days.


Housing of animal is the most important factor in dairy farming. A good housing leads to good management practices and ultimately optimum production. The housing of dairy animals depends upon

  • Number of animals
  • Type of breed of animals
  • Local environmental conditions
  • Finances available
  • Facilities to be provided

Some general considerations which must be considered for housing are

  • It should be less expensive
  • It should be well ventilated
  • It should protect from extreme environmental conditions
  • It should have maximum sun exposure
  • Its axis of length should be east to west
  • It should remain dry
  • Its environment should be hygienic
  • There should be availability of feed and water for 24 hours
  • It should have adequate provision to reduce the heat gain by the animals and promote the heat loss to avoid heat stress during summer season.
  • It should be so planed that future expansion may be possible if required.

Components Required at Dairy Farm

The following structures/components/facilities are required at dairy farm:

  • A wheel dip filled with disinfectant at the main gate of farm for biosecurity
  • Shed for milch animals
  • Shed for dry animals
  • Shed for pregnant animals
  • Shed for Replacement heifers
  • Shed for Calves
  • Shed for Diseased animals
  • Postmortem Room
  • Milking parlour with a record room
  • Storage room for milk
  • Silage bunkers
  • Stores for concentrates and dry roughages
  • Mangers/feeding tables
  • Water troughs
  • Foot bath
  • Manure pits
  • Artificial insemination shed attached to a semen processing and storage laboratory
  • Veterinary dispensary
  • Shed for parking tractor, trolley etc.
  • Workshop for repair and keeping of farm implements
  • Offices and facility of accommodation for farm manager and staff
  • Generator

Type of housing

Different types of housing of dairy animals are:

  • Free stall
  • Tie Stall
  • Loose Housing system

Among these, free stall is the only recommended type of housing for successful dairy farming.

Free Stall

Free stall is the recommended system of housing for successful dairy farming. Here cows are kept free except at the time of milking. Resting area is divided into stalls. Cows are not restrained in the resting area (free stall / cubicle) and are free to enter, lie down, rise up, and leave the stall whenever they desire.

For free stall housing system area of shed is divided into two sides with a central space of 14-16 feet (depending upon the width of feeding trolley) as feeding driveway. On both sides of this central space 2 feet area is provided for feeding area/table.

Behind the feeding table, 10-14 feet walking area is provided for cow to move freely which is 4-6 inches lower than the floor of feeding table. This area is separated from feeding table through a curb which is 1-1.5 feet high from the floor of walking area and 1 feet high from the floor of feeding driveway. A rod is also fixed above this curb at the height of 3 feet from floor. The walking area should be grooved and non-slippery.

Behind the free area free stalls are provided either in single row or double row or more depending upon the number of cows. Bed of stall should be 4-6 inches higher than the floor of walking area. Stalls should have following dimensions:

  • Length: 7-8 feet
  • Width: 3-4 feet
  • Height: 4 feet

If stalls are provided into two rows, then arrange either tail to tail or face to face. In such case additional 10-12 feet walking are area should be provided behind the stalls. Layout of shed with two rows (tail to tail) free stalls is as follows:

Layout of shed with two rows (face to face) free stalls is as follows:

As far as animal to stall ratio is concerned, there should be 10 more stalls than the number of animals. For example, for 100 animals we will provide 110 stalls.
Optional walking/exercising area with fencing may also be provided behind the last row of freestalls depending upon the availability of land.
At the both ends of the row of stalls, there should be crossover so that animal can move freely. The size of each crossover should be 8 feet. If stalls are higher in number, then additional crossover should be provided after every 15-20 stalls

For watering purpose, water trough should be provided within each cross over. In such case cross over should be 16 feet. Height of water trough should be 2-2.5 feet. Protect stalls adjacent to crossovers from splashing manure and water. This can be done with 4 feet high curb or solid partitions between the stalls and crossover. Water bowl with automatic supply of water can also be installed instead of water trough. When animal push inside the pot with its mouth, water comes out automatically. The distance between floor and water bowl should be about 18-20 inches.

For the ease of manure removal, it is better to elevate crossovers (3-6″). To promote drainage and self-cleaning, provide slope of 1/4″ to 1/2″ per foot of length toward each alley. The floor of crossover should be grooved.
Height of shed should be 18-20 feet in middle and 12-14 feet at corners with slopping roof.
For cooling of shed automatic sprinkling system and fans should be installed. Distance between fans should be 25 feet (variable depending upon the size of fan).

Tie Stall

In tie stall most of the system components are contained in the same structure. This type of housing is not preferred in modern dairy farming. In this type of housing system there are two or more rows of tie stalls with a manure gutter, feed manger and service alley for each row:
The tie stalls may be constructed in a single row if the number of animals is 16 or less, or in two rows if the number is more, either with the heads of animals facing outside, the so-called tail-to-tail arrangement or with the heads of animals facing each other, the so-called head-to-head arrangement.

The floor should be free from dampness and non-slippery, reasonably above the outside ground, and having a slope of 2.5 cm in 1.5 m length from front to back towards the rear channel. It should be easy to clean and wash and should get dry quickly.

Dairy shed with Tie stall system of housing should have following dimensions:

  • 5 feet for feeding passage
  • 2 feet width for feeding area/table6-7 feet for of the stall
  • 1 feet for rear channel for drainage
  • 5 feet width for the manure-cum-milking passage
  • Height of shed should be 18-20 feet in middle and 12-14 feet at corner

Stall should have following dimensions

  • Length: 6-7 feet
  • Width: 3-4 feet
  • Height: 4 feet

For feeding purpose the space for feeding should be separated from stall bed with a 1.5 feet manger curb. Above manger curb fix a rod at the height of 3 feet from floor. For 24 hours availability of water each stall should have water bowl with automatic supply of water. Such bowls are attached with stall rails. When animal push inside the pot with its mouth, water comes out automatically. The distance between floor and water bowl should be about 18-20 inches.

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